Reverse discrimination

Reverse discrimination refers to the discrimination of members of favors as deemed favor of a deemed disadvantaged group. Reverse sexism The onboard regulations of some Australian airlines such as Qantas Airways, Jetstar Airways and Virgin Australia prohibit male passengers from taking a seat next to children traveling alone.  This … Read More

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Extension of the animal-machine concept to humans and in biology

La Mettrie extends the Cartesian conception of animal-machines through the affirmation of a “man-machine” (1748). Nevertheless, such an extension of the mechanical model of comprehension, as effected by La Mettrie, constitutes a profoundly anti-Cartesian gesture: in this way, he challenges … Read More

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Covid-19 Pandemic will change the education systems

The Pandemic that is ravaging the globe is likely to cause the most serious disruption to educational opportunity in at least a century. The studies and lives of those currently in school will be impacted in multiple ways, some yet … Read More

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Michel Foucault’s biopolitics and the COVID-19 pandemic

The coronavirus pandemic has forced us to rethink the politics of health in the broadest sense. In particular, we have had to confront again that vexed  relationship between the state, the dominant social relations and public health. Concepts that may … Read More

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Jeremy Bentham: Utilitarianism and Deontology

The two-level utilitarianism developed by Hare is based on the recognition of the artificial nature of the dichotomy between deontologism and consequentialism. Very general moral rules, such as the no-harm rule, are most of the time useful and sufficient to … Read More

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Different versions of utilitarianism

The utilitarian calculus One of the important feature of utilitarianism is its pragmatism. The morality of an act is “calculated” on the basis of its effects, not the motives behind it. This calculation takes into account the consequences of the … Read More

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Solaris, directed by Andrei Tarkovsky – Psychological and philosophical aspects

About the main psychological and philosophical aspects detached from the film Solaris directed by Andrei Tarkovski, as well as the cinema techniques used by the director to convey his messages to the spectator. In the “Introduction” I briefly present the relevant elements of Tarkovski’s biography and an overview of Stanislav Lem’s Solaris novel and the film Solaris directed by Andrei Tarkovsky. In “Cinema Technique” I talk about the specific rhythm of the scenes, the radical movement triggered by Tarkovsky in modern cinema, the role of symbolic and iconic elements, and affinities with the fantastic area of Russian literature. In Psychological Aspects I analyze the issue of communication in a human society of the future considered by Tarkovsky as rigid, the obsession of the house, and the personal evolution of Kris, Hari, and the relationships between them. In Philosophical Aspects, the film is analyzed through the philosophy of the mind (Cartesian dualism, reductionism and functionalism), the problem of personal identity, the theory of heterotopic spaces developed by Michel Foucault, and the semantic interpretations that can be deduced from the film. It also analyzes the issue of personal identity through Locke’s philosophy. “Conclusions” show the general ideas of this essay, namely that Man’s attempts to classify and maintain forms of interaction with unknown entities will always be condemned to failure and will reflect a major mistake in the panoptic world in which we live. In this framework of analysis of the philosophy of mind, functionalism seems to be the most intuitive. Solaris is, however, a movie that begins as a search for answers and comes to provide these answers with a whole range of different questions.


1 Cinema technique
2 Psychological Aspects
3 Philosophical aspects

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28635.82723


Publishing EPUB (ISBN 978-606-033-224-4), Kindle (ISBN 978-606-033-223-7), PDF (ISBN 978-606-033-225-1)

Solaris, directed by Andrei Tarkovsky – Psychological and philosophical aspects