(Sebastian Loscher: Allegory of Justice (1536)) Civil disobedience is the public and accepted refusal to submit to a law, regulation, organization or power deemed unfair by those who challenge it, while making this refusal a peaceful weapon of combat. The … Read More
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(Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (German: Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten; 1785; also known as the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals), by Immanuel Kant … Read More
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(Aristotle, by Francesco Hayez) Aristotelianism is the name given to the doctrine derived from the works of Aristotle, from the Persian philosopher Avicenna and the Andalusian philosopher Averroes in particular, then gradually adopted in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by … Read More
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Natural philosophy, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is an expression that applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that reigned before the development of modern science. Traditionally allied with natural theology, it used to designate … Read More
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(The tram dilemma is a thought experiment that can serve to illustrate and test different ethical theories.) Normative ethics is the branch of ethics that studies the possible moral criteria to determine when an action is right and when it is not. It looks for general principles that … Read More
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(Paul Cézanne, The Card Players 1892-95) Art is not content to copy nature. However, he does not turn away from her, but goes back to the source. In Cézanne’s painting, Merleau-Ponty reminds us, it is never about color as a … Read More
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The acquired knowledge can only be qualified as scientific if the scientificity of the obtaining process has been demonstrated. The “scientific method” (ancient Greek methodos, “pursuit, research, plan”) is “the set of reasoned processes to achieve a goal; this one … Read More
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A phenomenon is the way in which a thing, a fact of the physical world (object, action …), psychic (emotion, thought …) or social (product of social interactions) is manifested to the sensitivity of a living being. Certain phenomena of … Read More
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Science can be organized into major scientific disciplines, including: mathematics, chemistry, biology, physics, mechanics, computer science, psychology, optics, pharmacy, medicine, astronomy, archeology, economics, sociology, anthropology, linguistics. The disciplines are distinguished not only by their methods or their objects, but also … Read More
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The Christian ethics (theological ethics) is one of the basic disciplines of theology. It deals with the reflection of the moral good in the context of Christian theology. According to the older definition, Christian ethics is “the science of the … Read More
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