Solaris, directed by Andrei Tarkovsky – Psychological and philosophical aspects

About the main psychological and philosophical aspects detached from the film Solaris directed by Andrei Tarkovski, as well as the cinema techniques used by the director to convey his messages to the spectator. In the “Introduction” I briefly present the relevant elements of Tarkovski’s biography and an overview of Stanislav Lem’s Solaris novel and the film Solaris directed by Andrei Tarkovsky. In “Cinema Technique” I talk about the specific rhythm of the scenes, the radical movement triggered by Tarkovsky in modern cinema, the role of symbolic and iconic elements, and affinities with the fantastic area of Russian literature. In Psychological Aspects I analyze the issue of communication in a human society of the future considered by Tarkovsky as rigid, the obsession of the house, and the personal evolution of Kris, Hari, and the relationships between them. In Philosophical Aspects, the film is analyzed through the philosophy of the mind (Cartesian dualism, reductionism and functionalism), the problem of personal identity, the theory of heterotopic spaces developed by Michel Foucault, and the semantic interpretations that can be deduced from the film. It also analyzes the issue of personal identity through Locke’s philosophy. “Conclusions” show the general ideas of this essay, namely that Man’s attempts to classify and maintain forms of interaction with unknown entities will always be condemned to failure and will reflect a major mistake in the panoptic world in which we live. In this framework of analysis of the philosophy of mind, functionalism seems to be the most intuitive. Solaris is, however, a movie that begins as a search for answers and comes to provide these answers with a whole range of different questions.

CONTENTS:

Abstract
Introduction
1 Cinema technique
2 Psychological Aspects
3 Philosophical aspects
Conclusions
Bibliography
Notes

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28635.82723

07.05.2019

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Solaris, directed by Andrei Tarkovsky – Psychological and philosophical aspects

Poetry Kaleidoscope

Poetry KaleidoscopeIntroduction in poetry: nature of poetry, tools, history, terms (periods, styles and movements, technical means, tropes, measures of verse, verse forms, national poetry…

Poetry is traditionally a written art form (although there is also an ancient and modern poetry which relies mainly upon oral or pictorial representations) in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content.
The increased emphasis on the aesthetics of language and the deliberate use of features such as repetition, meter and rhyme, are what are commonly used to distinguish poetry from prose, but debates over such distinctions still persist, while the issue is confounded by such forms as prose poetry and poetic prose.
Some modernists (such as the Surrealists) approach this problem of definition by defining poetry not as a literary genre within a set of genres, but as the very manifestation of human imagination, the substance which all creative acts derive from.

CONTENTS:

1 Poetry
– Nature of poetry
– Tools
– – Sound
– – Form
– – Rhetoric
– History
– 1.1 Nature of Poetry
– – 1.1.1 Prose Poetry
– – 1.1.2 Poem and Song
– – 1.1.2.1 Poesybeat
– 1.2 End-stopping
– 1.3 Groups and Movements
– – 1.3.1 Confessionalism
– – 1.3.2 Black Mountain Poets
– – Background
– – Projective Verse
– – The Main Black Mountain Poets
– – Legacy of the Black Mountain Poets
– – 1.3.3 Deep Image
– 1.4 Poetic closure
– 1.5 Poetic diction
– – Greece and Rome
– – Germanic languages
– – Asia
– – Poetic diction in English
– 1.6 Action Poetry
– 1.7 Ethnopoetics
– 1.8 Poets
– – Life of a poet
– – Poets and society
– – 1.8.1 Poetaster
– – 1.8.2 Poetess
– – 1.8.3 National Poets
– – List of national poets
– – Sobriquets
– – 1.8.4 War Poets
– – World War I
– – Spanish Civil War
– – World War II
– – Later wars
– – 1.8.5 Poète maudit
– 1.9 Poetry Analysis
– – Overview
– – – “Another”, by Robert Herrick
– – – “The Destruction of Sennacherib”, by Lord Byron
– – – “The Silken Tent”, by Robert Frost
– – Tools for poetry analysis
– – – Poetic forms
– – – – Closed forms
– – – – Open forms
– – – Imagery and symbolism
– – – Meter and rhyme
– – – Sound, tone, diction, and connotation
– – – Visual and concrete poetry
– – Approaches to poetry analysis
– – – Schools of poetry
– – – Schools of criticism
– – – Reading poetry aloud
– 1.10 Poetry Prizes and Awards
– – Lists of poetry prizes and awards
– – – Major international awards
– – – Major British awards
– – – Major Canadian awards
– – – Major French awards
– – – Major German awards
– – – Major Italian awards
– – – Major Korean awards
– – – Major Russian awards
– – – Major Spanish-language awards
– – – Major U.S. awards
– – 1.10.1 Poet Laureat
– – Origin of the term
– – History
– – List of Poets Laureate
– – – British Poets Laureate
– – – – Mediæval
– – – – Tudor
– – – – Stuart
– – – – Appointed by letters patent
– – – Scotland and Wales
– – Poets Laureate in other countries
– 1.11 Poetry Reading
– 1.12 World Poetry Day
2 National Poetry
– 2.1 American Poetry
– – Poetry in the colonies
– – Postcolonial poetry
– – An American idiom
– – Modernism and after
– – World War II and after
– – American poetry now
– – 2.1.1 Cowboy Poetry
– – Prominent cowboy poets
– 2.2 Arabic Poetry
– – Pre-Islamic poetry
– – Poetry under Islam
– – Court poets
– – Modern poetry
– – Poetic forms
– – – Mu’rabbah: literary Arabic
– – – Malhunah: informal poetry
– – 2.2.1 Ghazal
– – Details of the form
– – The theme
– – – Illicit unattainable love
– – – In the context of Sufism
– – Ghazal singers
– – 2.2.2 Muwashshah
– 2.3 Australian Poetry
– 2.4 Bengali Poetry
– 2.5 British Poetry
– – 2.5.1 Anglo-Welsh Poetry
– – 2.5.2 English Poetry
– – The earliest English poetry
– – The Anglo-Norman period and the Later Middle Ages
– – The Renaissance in England
– – – Early Renaissance poetry
– – – The Elizabethans
– – – – Elizabethan song
– – – – Courtly poetry
– – – – Elizabethan verse drama
– – – – Classicism
– – – Jacobean and Caroline poetry
– – – – The Metaphysical poets
– – – – The Cavalier poets
– – – – The school of Spenser
– – The Restoration and 18th century
– – – Satire
– – – 18th century classicism
– – – Women poets in the 18th century
– – – The late 18th century
– – The Romantic movement
– – Victorian poetry
– – – High Victorian poetry
– – – Pre-Raphaelites, arts and crafts, Aestheticism, and the “Yellow” 1890s
– – The 20th century
– – – The first three decades
– – – – The Georgian poets
– – – – World War I
– – – – Modernism
– – – The Thirties
– – – – The New Country poets
– – – – Surrealism and others
– – – The Forties
– – – – The war poets
– – – – The New Romantics
– – – – Other 1940s poets
– – – The Fifties
– – – – The Movement
– – – – The Group
– – – – The Extremist Art poets
– – – – The Modernist tradition
– – – The 1960s and 1970s
– – – – The British Poetry Revival
– – – – The Mersey Beat
– – English poetry now
– – 2.5.2.1 Heroic Couplets
– – 2.5.2.1.1 Heroic Verse
– – 2.5.2.2 Old English Poetry
– – – The poets
– – – Heroic poems
– – – Wisdom poetry
– – – Classical and Latin poetry
– – – Christian poetry
– – – – Saints’ Lives
– – – – Biblical paraphrases
– – – – Christian poems
– – – Other poems
– – – Specific features of Anglo-Saxon poetry
– – – – Simile, and metaphor
– – – – Elaboration
– – 2.5.3 Irish Poetry
– – Early Irish poetry
– – Medieval/Early modern
– – – Bardic poetry
– – – Metrical Dindshenchus
– – – The poems of Fionn
– – – The Kildare poems
– – – Spenser and Ireland
– – Gaelic poetry in the 17th century
– – The 18th century
– – – Gaelic songs: the end of an order
– – – Cúirt An Mheán Oíche
– – – Swift and Goldsmith
– – The 19th century
– – – Irishing English
– – – Folk songs and poems
– – – The Celtic revival
– – The 20th century
– – – Yeats and modernism
– – – The 1916 poets
– – – After Yeats: Clarke, Higgins, Colum
– – – Irish Modernism
– – – Poetry in De Valera’s Ireland
– – – Poetry in Irish
– – – The Northern School
– – – Experiment
– – – Outsiders
– – – Women poets
– – Irish poetry now
– – 2.5.3.1 Aisling
– – 2.5.4 Welsh Poetry
– – History
– – Forms
– – 2.5.4.1 Awdl
– – 2.5.4.2 Cynghanedd
– – Forms of cynghanedd
– – – Cynghanedd groes (“cross-harmony”)
– – – Cynghanedd draws (also “cross-harmony”)
– – – Cynghanedd sain (“sound-harmony”)
– – – Cynghanedd lusg (“drag-harmony”)
– – 2.5.4.3 Englyn
– – The Eight Types
– – – Englyn penfyr
– – – Englyn milwr
– – – Englyn unodl union
– – – Englyn unodl crwc
– – – Englyn cyrch
– – – Englyn proest dalgron
– – – Englyn lleddfbroest
– – – Englyn proest gadwynog
– – – Other forms
– – Examples
– – 2.5.5 Hudibrastic
– – 2.5.6 Mock-heroic
– 2.6 Burmese Poetry
– – 2.6.1 Than-Bauk
– – 2.6.2 Ya-Du
– 2.7 Cambodian – Pathya vat
– 2.8 Canadian Poetry
– – English-Canadian Poetry
– – – Beginnings
– – – Confederation
– – – Early 20th Century
– – – Post War
– – – Literary Prizes
– – – Uniquely Canadian Forms
– – – – Shallot Confiture
– – French-Canadian Poetry
– – – Early verse
– – – End of 19th century
– – – The Montreal School
– – – The terroir
– 2.9 Chinese Poetry
– – Early poetry
– – Classical poetry
– – Later classical poetry
– – Modern poetry
– – 2.9.1 Ci
– – Famous Ci Poets
– – 2.9.2 Shi
– – Origins
– – Gushi
– – Jintishi
– – Examples of Tang poetry
– – 2.9.3 Yue fu
– 2.10 Filipino – Tanaga
– – History of the Tanaga
– – The Modern Tanaga
– – Tanaga in other Languages
– 2.11 French Poetry
– – Important French poets
– – 2.11.1 Ballade
– – 2.11.2 Chansons de Geste
– – Subjects
– – Origins
– – Performance
– – The poems themselves
– – Legacy
– – 2.11.3 Reverdie
– – 2.11.4 Rondeau
– – 2.11.5 Rondelet
– – Other uses
– – 2.11.6 Vers de Société
– – 2.11.7 Virelai
– – Example
– – 2.11.7.1 Virelai ancien
– – 2.11.7.2 Virelai nouveau
– – An Example
– – 2.11.8 Virelay
– 2.12 Hebrew and Jewish Epic Poetry
– 2.13 Indian Epic Poetry
– 2.14 Italian Poetry
– – 2.14.1 Ballata
– – 2.14.2 Dodecasyllable
– – 2.14.3 Fescennine Verses
– – 2.14.4 Hendecasyllable
– – 2.14.5 Sicilian octave
– 2.15 Japanese Poetry
– – Ancient
– – – Poems in Kojiki and Nihonshoki
– – – Early Manyoshu poets (Vol. I-III)
– – – Chinese influence
– – – Nara period poets
– – – Waka in the early Heian period
– – – The culmination of Kanshi
– – – Kokinshu
– – – Influence of Kokin-wakashu
– – – Imperial anthologies of Waka
– – From the late ancient to Middle
– – – Waka in the life of Kuge
– – – Roei style
– – – Age of Nyobo or court ladies
– – – Poetry in the period of cloistered rule
– – – Shinkokin Wakashu
– – – Fujiwara no Teika
– – – Pre-modern
– – – Modern
– – – Contemporary
– – Important Poets (premodern)
– – Important poets (Modern)
– – Important collections and works
– – 2.15.1 Dodoitsu
– – 2.15.2 Haiku
– – – Hokku or haiku?
– – – Two examples
– – Origin and evolution
– – – From renga to haikai
– – – The time of Bashō
– – – The time of Buson
– – – The appearance of Shiki
– – Modern haiku
– – – Hekigotō and Kyoshi
– – Haiku in the West
– – – Henderson and Blyth
– – – The budding of American haiku
– – Contemporary English-language haiku
– – Internet and television
– – 2.15.2.1 Kimo
– – 2.15.2.2 SciFaiku
– – 2.15.3 Renga
– – History
– – How to Make a Renga
– – Terms of Renga
– – 2.15.4 Senryu
– – 2.15.5 Shichigon-zekku
– – Composition
– – 2.15.6 Waka
– – Forms of Waka
– – – Chōka
– – – Tanka
– – – Other forms
– – Poetic culture
– – History of Waka development
– – – Ancient
– – – Heian revival
– – – Medieval
– – – Tokugawa shogunate period
– – – Modern
– – Tanka written in English
– 2.16 Kannada Poetry
– – Pre-history
– – Haiku before Haiku!
– – Bhakti
– – Navodaya (New birth)
– – Navya (New)
– – Other genres
– – Awards
– – Reaching people
– 2.17 Korean Poetry
– – 2.17.1 Sijo
– 2.18 Lao – Glawn
– 2.19 Malay – Pantun
– 2.20 Old Norse Poetry
– – Metrical Forms
– – Eddaic poetry
– – Skaldic poetry
– – – Skaldic poems
– – 2.20.1 Edda
– – Etymology
– – The Poetic Edda
– – The Younger Edda
– 2.21 Provençal – Alba
– 2.22 Rune Poems
– – Fe
– – Ur
– – Þurs
– – As
– – Reidh
– – Kaun
– – Hagall
– – Naud
– – Is
– – Ar
– – Sol
– – Tyr
– – Bjarken
– – Madr
– – Logr
– – Yr
– – Anglo-Saxon only runes
– – – Gyfu, Wynn
– – – Ger, Eoh, Peordh, Eolh
– – – Eh
– – – Ing, Ethel, Daeg
– – – Ac, Ash, Yr, Ior, Ear
– – Abecedarium Nordmannicum
– 2.23 Russian Poetry
– – 2.23.1 Bylina
– – 2.23.2 Chastushka
– – Examples
– 2.24 Serbian Epic Poetry
– – Structure
– – Corpus
– – Modern Serbian Epic Poetry
– – Excerpts
– – Quotes
– 2.25 Spanish Poetry
– 2.26 Spanish American Poetry
– – Flor y Canto
– – From the Preconquest to the beginning of Colonialization
– – 2.26.1 Décima
– 2.27 Tamil – Kural
– 2.28 Ukrainian – Duma
– 2.29 Urdu Poetry
– – Genres
– – Pen names (Takhallus)
– – 2.29.1 Beher
– – 2.29.2 Maqta
– – 2.29.3 Qaafiyaa
– – 2.29.4 Radif
– 2.30 Vietnamese – Luc Bat
– – Example
– – 2.30.1 Song Thất Lục Bát
3 Periods
– 3.1 Ancient Poetry
– – 3.1.1 Augustan Poetry
– – Overview
– – Alexander Pope, the Scribblerans, and poetry as social act
– – Translation and adaptation as statement
– – Sentiment and the poetry of the individual
– – 3.1.2 Choliambic Verse
– – 3.1.3 Glyconic
– – 3.1.4 Saturnian
– – The Saturnian as quantitative
– – – Examples
– – The Saturnian as accentual
– – – Examples
– – The Saturnian in non-Latin Italic
– – 3.1.5 Tristubh
– 3.2 Medieval Poetry
– – Medieval Latin literature
– – Medieval vernacular literature
4 Styles
– 4.1 Acrostic
– 4.2 Concrete Poetry
– 4.3 Christian Poetry
– – Overview of Christian poetry
– – Examples of Christian Poems
– – 4.3.1 Biblical Poetry
– – Characteristics of Ancient Hebrew Poetry
– – – Rhyme
– – – Unusual forms
– – – Parallelism
– – – Quantitative rhythm
– – – Accentual rhythm
– – – The Dirges
– – – Anadiplosis
– – – Acrostics
– – Division of the poetical portions of the Hebrew Bible
– – – Poems that deal with events
– – – Didactic poems
– – – Lyrics
– – – Poems that urge action
– – Extent of Poetry in the Old Testament
– 4.4 Death Poem
– 4.5 Digital Poetry
– 4.6 Dramatic poetry
– – Dramatic verse
– – The closet drama
– – Dramatic poetry in general
– – 4.6.1 Aubade
– 4.7 Eclogue
– – Ancient Eclogues
– – Modern Eclogues
– 4.8 Epigram
– – Ancient Greek
– – Ancient Roman
– – Poetic epigrams
– – Non-poetic epigrams
– 4.9 Epitah
– – Famous Epitaphs
– – Other Epitaphs
– 4.10 Epithalamium
– – History
– – Development as a Literary Form
– 4.11 Erasure Poetry
– 4.12 Found Poetry
– 4.13 Gnomic Poetry
– 4.14 Ideogramme
– – 4.14.1 Ideogrammic method
– 4.15 Idyll
– 4.16 Jazz Poetry
– – The Harlem Renaissance
– – Bebop and the Beat Generation
– – Modern Jazz Poetry
– 4.17 Kyrielle
– – Name and form
– – An example
– 4.18 Lament
– 4.19 Light Poetry
– – 4.19.1 Doggerel
– – 4.19.2 McWhirtle
– 4.20 Limerick Poetry
– – Structure
– – History
– – – Origin of the name
– – – Early examples
– – – Edward Lear
– – Well-known authors
– – Recurring themes
– – – Ribald verses
– – – Nantucket
– – – Uttoxeter and Exeter
– – Spelling
– – – Anti-limericks
– – – Non-rhyme
– – – Structure
– – Limericks in other languages than English
– 4.21 Lyric poetry
– – History
– – Themes
– – Forms
– – Metrics
– – Rhyme and alliteration
– – 4.21.1 Anacreontics
– – 4.21.2 Cantiga de Amigo
– – 4.21.3 Ode
– – Greek origins
– – Ode in Continental Europe
– – English ode
– – Ode in music
– – 4.21.3.1 Antistrophe
– – 4.21.3.2 Epode
– – Epodes of Horace
– – 4.21.3.3 Palinode
– – Examples
– 4.22 Narrative Poetry
– – 4.22.1 Ballad
– – Origin and form
– – Characteristics
– – Broadsheet ballads
– – – Murder ballads
– – Border ballads
– – Literary ballads
– – Ballad opera
– – Jazz ballad
– – 4.22.1.1 Ballad Meter
– – 4.22.2 Epic
– – Oral epics or world folk epics
– – Epics in literate societies
– – 4.22.2.1 National Epic
– – Western
– – Oriental
– – 4.22.2.2 World Folk-epics
– – 4.22.3 Epyllion
– 4.23 Pantoum
– 4.24 Paradelle
– – Derivation
– – Form
– – The Paradelle Now
– 4.25 Partimen
– 4.26 Performance Poetry
– – Poetry in Oral Cultures
– – The Advent of Printing
– – The 20th Century
– – The 1970s and After
– – 4.26.1 Dub Poetry
– – 4.26.2 Slam Poetry
– – Slam and academia
– – History
– – Competition
– – Competition types
– 4.27 Roses are red
– 4.28 Scrypt
– – Technique
– – – The Use of Rhymes
– – – Complex Rhyme Structures
– – – Flow & Rhythm
– – – Visual Wordplay
– – – KiStyling
– – History
– 4.29 Sound Poetry
– 4.30 Schools of Poetry
– – 4.30.1 Martian Poetry
– – 4.30.2 Modernist Poetry
– – 4.30.3 Romantic Poetry
– – Usage
– – Pioneers of romantic poetry
– – The flowering of romantic poetry in England
– – 4.30.4 Symbolist Poetry
5 Technical means
– 5.1 Accent
– 5.2 Anacrusis
– 5.3 Assonance
– – Examples
– 5.4 Cæsura
– – Examples
– – – Latin
– – – Old English
– – – Middle English
– – – Modern English
– – Classification
– 5.5 Dissonance
– 5.6 Kennings
– – Modern kennings
– 5.7 Meter
– – Fundamentals
– – Technical Terms
– – Common Feet
– – – Greek and Latin
– – – English
– – – French
– – – Spanish
– – – Italian
– – Dissent
– – 5.7.1 Foot
– – The poetic feet
– – – Disyllables
– – – Trisyllables
– – – Tetrasyllables
– – 5.7.1.1 Amphibrach
– – 5.7.1.2 Anapaest
– – 5.7.1.3 Choriamb
– – 5.7.1.3.1 Choriambic Verse
– – 5.7.1.4 Iamb
– – 5.7.1.4.1 Common Metre
– – 5.7.1.4.2 Iambic Heptameter
– – 5.7.1.4.3 Iambic Pentameter
– – A Simple Example
– – Rhythmic Variation
– – History in English
– – 5.7.1.4.4 Iambic Trimeter
– – 5.7.1.5 Pyrrhic
– – 5.7.1.6 Spondee
– – 5.7.1.7 Tribrach
– – 5.7.1.8 Trochee
– – 5.7.2 Dactyl
– – 5.7.2.1 Dactylic Hexameter
– – 5.7.2.2 Double Dactyl
– – 5.7.3 Decasyllable
– – 5.7.4 Elegy
– – 5.7.4.1 Elegiac
– – 5.7.4.1.1 Elegiac couplet
– – 5.7.5 Hendecasyllabic
– – 5.7.6 Vedic meter
– – 5.7.7 Poulter’s Measure
– 5.8 Rhyme
– – Etymology
– – Examples
– – Types of rhyme
– – Rhyme in English
– – Rhyme in French
– – Rhyme in Hebrew
– – Rhyme in Latin
– – 5.8.1 Classification of Rhymes
– – Traditional Pure Rhyme
– – Pararhyme
– – Assonance Rhyme
– – – Pure Assonance Rhyme
– – Consonance Rhyme
– – Syllable Rhyme
– – Uneven Rhyme
– – Other types of rhyme
– – 5.8.2 Rhyme Scheme
– – 5.8.3 Chain Rhyme
– – 5.8.4 Eye Rhyme
– – 5.8.5 Feminine Rhyme
– – 5.8.6 Half Rhyme
– – 5.8.7 Holorime
– – Holorime in English
– – Holorime in French
– – Other examples
– – 5.8.8 Internal Rhyme
– – Examples
– – 5.8.9 Nursery Rhyme
– – Popular culture
– – 5.8.9.1 Mares Eat Oats
– – Lyrics
– – History
– – 5.8.10 Pararhyme
– – 5.8.11 Sprung Rhythm
– – Example
– – 5.8.12 Triolet
– – Examples
– – 5.8.13 Pruning Poem
– 5.9 Stichomythia
– 5.10 Structural elements
– – 5.10.1 Line
– – 5.10.1.1 Acatalectic
– – 5.10.1.2 Acephalous Line
– – 5.10.1.3 Alexandrine
– – 5.10.1.4 Asclepiad
– – 5.10.1.5 Catalectic
– – 5.10.1.6 Dimeter/Couplet
– – 5.10.1.7 Feminine Ending
– – 5.10.1.8 Heptameter
– – 5.10.1.9 Hexameter
– – 5.10.1.10 Monometer
– – 5.10.1.11 Octameter
– – 5.10.1.12 Pentameter
– – 5.10.1.13 Tetrameter
– – 5.10.1.14 Trimeter
– – 5.10.2 Couplet
– – 5.10.2.1 Closed Couplet
– – 5.10.3 Stroph
– – 5.10.4 Stanza
– – 5.10.4.1 Chant Royal
– – An Example
– – 5.10.4.2 Cinquain
– – 5.10.4.3 Envoi
– – Form
– – Early Use
– – Development
– – An Example
– – 5.10.4.4 Habbie Stanza
– – 5.10.4.5 Onegin Stanza
– – 5.10.4.6 Ottava Rima
– – Form
– – History
– – Some examples
– – 5.10.4.7 Quatrain
– – Basic Forms
– – Other forms
– – 5.10.4.8 Rhyme Royal
– – Form
– – History
– – Some Examples
– – Ballade Royal
– – 5.10.4.9 Sapphics
– – 5.10.4.10 Spenserian Stanza
– – 5.10.4.11 Terza rima
– – Form
– – History
– – Some Examples
– – 5.10.4.12 Verse Paragraph
6 Verse
– 6.1 Accentual Verse
– 6.2 Alliterative verse
– – Common Germanic origins and features
– – Old English poetic forms
– – – Accent
– – – Alliteration
– – – Survivals
– – Old Norse poetic forms
– – – Fornyrðislag
– – – Ljóðaháttr
– – – Dróttkvætt
– – – Hrynhenda
– – German forms
– – – In Old High German and Old Saxon
– – – Modern use
– – 6.2.1 Anglo-Saxon
– 6.3 Blank verse
– – History of English blank verse
– 6.4 Clerihew
– – Examples
– – – The World’s Shortest Clerihew
– 6.5 Free verse
– – Some types of Free Verse
– – History
– – Precursors
– 6.6 Grook
– 6.7 Libel
– – Classical roots
– – Renaissance English examples
– 6.8 Monostich
– 6.9 Nonet
– 6.10 Nonsense Verse
– 6.11 Octave
– 6.12 Roundelay
– 6.13 Sestina
– – Example
– – How to
– 6.14 Solage
– – Examples
– 6.15 Sonnet
– – The Italian Sonnet
– – The English Sonnet
– – – History
– – – Form
– – The Modern Sonnet
– – 6.15.1 Caudate sonnet
– – 6.15.2 Crown of sonnets
– – 6.15.3 Curtal sonnet
– – 6.15.4 Petrarchan sonnet
– – 6.15.5 Quatorzain
– – 6.15.6 Sestet
– – 6.15.7 Shakespearean sonnet
– – 6.15.8 Sonnet cycle
– – 6.15.9 Spenserian sonnet
– 6.16 Syllabic Verse
– 6.17 Tercet
– 6.18 Terzanelle
– 6.19 Villanelle
– – Derivation
– – Form
– – The villanelle in English
– – Example
Refrence
About the author
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – By the same author
– – Contact
Publishing House
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing House https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/poetry-kaleidoscope/

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French Riviera Tourist Guide (Guide touristique Côte d’Azur)

French Riviera Tourist Guide (Guide touristique Côte d'Azur)Bilingual English/French Book (Livre bilingue anglais/français)

French Riviera is one of the first modern resort areas. It began as a winter health resort at the end of the 18th century. With the arrival of the railway it became the playground and vacation spot of British, Russian, and other aristocrats, such as Queen Victoria and King Edward VII, when he was Prince of Wales. In the summer, it also played home to many members of the Rothschild family. In the first half of the 20th century, it was frequented by artists and writers, including Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Edith Wharton, Somerset Maugham, and Aldous Huxley, as well as wealthy Americans and Europeans. After World War II, it became a popular tourist destination and convention site. Many celebrities, such as Elton John and Brigitte Bardot, have homes in the region.
The French Riviera is a major yachting and cruising area with several marinas along its coast. According to the Côte d’Azur Economic Development Agency, each year the Riviera hosts 50% of the world’s superyacht fleet, with 90% of all superyachts visiting the region’s coast at least once in their lifetime.
As a tourist centre it benefits from 300 days of sunshine per year, 115 kilometres (71 mi) of coastline and beaches, 18 golf courses, 14 ski resorts and 3,000 restaurants.
Although the Riviera is famous for the glamour of St. Tropez, Monaco or the Cannes Film Festival, there are many other less well known attractions, such as the perched villages of Eze and Gourdon, the perfumeries of Grasse and the glass blowers of Biot, the potters in Vallauris. The Riviera has been the inspiration for many well-known artists such as Picasso and many of their works are on display in local museums and art galleries.

(La Côte d’Azur est l’un des premiers station balnéaire moderne. Il a commencé comme une station thermale d’hiver à la fin du 18ème siècle. Avec l’arrivée du chemin de fer dans le milieu du 19e siècle, il est devenu l’endroit aire de jeux et de vacances d’aristocrates britanniques, russes et autres, telles que la reine Victoria et le roi Edouard VII, quand il était prince de Galles. En été, il a aussi joué à la maison à beaucoup de membres de la famille Rothschild. Dans la première moitié du 20e siècle, il a été fréquenté par des artistes et des écrivains, comme Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Edith Wharton, Somerset Maugham et Aldous Huxley, ainsi que des riches Américains et Européens. Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, il est devenu une destination touristique populaire et lieu du congrès. De nombreuses célébrités, comme Elton John et Brigitte Bardot, ont des maisons dans la région.
La Côte d’Azur est une voile principale et une zone de croisière, avec plusieurs marinas le long de ses côtes. Selon l’Agence de Développement Economique de la Côte d’Azur, chaque année, la Côte d’Azur accueille 50% de la flotte de superyacht du monde, avec 90% de tous les superyachts visitant la côte au moins une fois dans leur vie.
En tant que centre touristique il bénéficie de 300 jours de soleil par an, à 115 kilomètres (71 miles) de côtes et de plages, 18 parcours de golf, 14 stations de ski et 3.000 restaurants.
Bien que la Côte d’Azur est célèbre pour le glamour de Saint-Tropez, Monaco ou le Festival de Cannes, il y a de nombreuses autres attractions moins bien connus, tels que les villages perchés de Eze et Gourdon, les parfumeries de Grasse et les souffleurs de verre de Biot, les potiers de Vallauris. La Côte d’Azur a été l’inspiration pour de nombreux artistes bien connus tels que Picasso et beaucoup de leurs œuvres sont exposées dans les musées et galeries d’art.)

SOMMAIRE (CONTENTS);

French Riviera
– Etymology
– – Origins of the name Côte d’Azur
– – Origin of term French Riviera
– Disputes over the extent of the Riviera and the Côte d’Azur
– History
– – From prehistory to the Bronze Age
– – Greek influence
– – Roman colonization
– – Barbarians and Christians
– – The Counts of Provence and the House of Grimaldi
– – Popularity with the British upper class in 18th and 19th centuries
– Get in
– Get around
– – By car
– – By train
– – By bus
– Talk
– Eat
– Drink
– Stay safe
– Loup Valley
– – Get in
– – – By air
– – – By road
– – See
– – Do
– – – Events
(Côte d’Azur)
– L’étymologie
– – Origine du nom Côte d’Azur
– – Origine du terme Riviera française
– – Différends sur l’étendue de la Côte d’Azur
– Histoire
– – De la préhistoire à l’âge du bronze
– – L’influence grecque
– – Colonisation romaine
– – Les barbares et les chrétiens
– – Les Comtes de Provence et de la Maison de Grimaldi
– – Popularité avec la classe supérieure britannique en 18e et 19e siècles
– Aller
– Circuler
– – En voiture
– – En train
– – En bus
– Parler
– Manger
– Boire
– Sécurité
– (La Vallée du Loup)
– – Aller
– – – Par avion
– – – Par la route
– – Voir
– – Faire
– – – Des événements
Arrondissement of Draguignan
– Draguignan
– – History
– – Major attractions
– Fayence
– – Get in
– – Get around
– – Sleep
– – Go next
– Fréjus
– – Transport
– – Main sights
– Saint-Tropez
– – Get in
– – Get around
– – See
– – Do
– – – Sports
– – – Beaches
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – Drink
– – Sleep
– Saint-Raphaël
– – Get in
– – Get around
– – See
– – Do
– – Eat
– – Sleep
– – Go next
(Arrondissement de Draguignan)
– (Draguignan)
– – Histoire
– – Les principales attractions
– (Fayence)
– – Aller
– – Circuler
– – Se loger
– – Aller prochaine
– (Fréjus)
– – Transport
– – Les principaux sites touristiques
– (Saint-Tropez)
– – Aller
– – Circuler
– – Voir
– – Faire
– – – Sports
– – – Plages
– – Acheter
– – Manger
– – Boire
– – Se loger
– (Saint-Raphaël)
– – Aller
– – Circuler
– – Voir
– – Faire
– – Manger
– – Se loger
– – Aux environs
Arrondissement of Grasse
– Grasse
– – Get in
– – See
– – Festivals
– – Do
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – Cultural references
– Antibes
– – Information
– – History
– – Get in
– – Get around
– – – Ports
– – See
– – – Museums
– – – Parks and Gardens
– – – Garoupe Lighthouse
– – – Church of the Immaculate Conception
– – – Hôtel du Cap-Eden Roc
– – Do
– – – Beaches
– – – Theatre and music
– – – Festivals
– – Work
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – Drink
– – Sleep
– Biot
– Cagnes-sur-Mer
– – Get in
– – Get around
– – Eat
– – Sleep
– – Go next
– Cannes
– – Climate
– – Economy
– – Get in
– – – By air
– – – By car
– – Get around
– – – By foot
– – – By bus
– – – By taxi
– – – By car
– – See
– – – Museums
– – – Villas of Cannes
– – – Islands
– – – More
– – Do
– – – Theatre and music
– – – Festivals and show events
– – Learn
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – Sleep
– – Aller prochaine
– Saint-Paul de Vence
– – Get in
– – Get around
– – See
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – Drink
– – Sleep
– Vence
– – Get in
– – – By road
– – – By train
– – – By plane
– – Get around
– – See
– – Do
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – Sleep
– – Go next
(Arrondissement de Grasse)
– (Grasse)
– – Aller
– – Voir
– – Festivals
– – Faire
– – Acheter
– – Manger
– – (Références culturelles)
– (Antibes)
– – Information
– – Histoire
– – Aller
– – Circuler
– – – Ports
– – Voir
– – – Musées
– – – Parcs et jardins
– – – Le Phare Garoupe
– – – Eglise de l’Immaculée Conception
– – – Hôtel du Cap-Eden Roc
– – Faire
– – – Plages
– – – Théâtre et musique
– – – Festivals
– – Travail
– – Acheter
– – Manger
– – Boire
– – Se loger
– (Biot)
– (Cagnes-sur-Mer)
– – Aller
– – Circuler
– – Manger
– – Se loger
– – Aller prochaine
– (Cannes)
– – Climat
– – Economie
– – Aller
– – – Par avion
– – – En voiture
– – Circuller
– – – À pied
– – – En bus
– – – En taxi
– – – En voiture
– – Voir
– – – Musées
– – – Villas de Cannes
– – – Îles
– – – More
– – Faire
– – – Théâtre et musique
– – – Festivals et événements des spectacles
– – Apprendre
– – Acheter
– – Manger
– – Se loger
– – Aller prochaine
– (Saint-Paul de Vence)
– – Aller
– – Circuler
– – Voir
– – Acheter
– – Manger
– – Boire
– – Se loger
– (Vence)
– – Aller
– – – Par la route
– – – En train
– – – En avion
– – Circuler
– – Voir
– – Faire
– – Acheter
– – Manger
– – Se loger
– – Aller prochaine
Arrondissement of Nice
– Nice
– – Get in
– – – By plane
– – – By train
– – – By car
– – – By bus
– – – By boat
– – Get around
– – – By bus and tram
– – – By train
– – – By car
– – – By taxi
– – – By foot
– – – By inline skating / rollerblading
– – – By bicycle
– – See
– – Do
– – – Beaches
– – – Beautiful landscapes
– – – Live performances
– – Learn
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – – Budget
– – – Mid-range
– – – Splurge
– – Drink
– – Sleep
– – – Budget
– – – Mid-range
– – – Splurge
– – Stay safe
– – Cope
– – – Religious services
– – – Consulates
– – Go next
– Èze
– – Get in
– – – By train
– – – By bus
– – – By bike
– – Get around
– – See
– – Do
– – Buy
– – Go next
– Menton
– – Geography
– – Get in
– – Get around
– – See
– – Sport
– – Do
– – Buy
– – – Flea market
– – Eat
– – Drink
– – Sleep
– Sospel
– – Get in
– – Get around
– – See
– – Do
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – Drink
– – Sleep
– – Go next
– Villefranche-sur-Mer
– – Get in
– – Get around
– – Do
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – – Self Catering
– – Sleep
(Arrondissement de Nice)
– (Nice)
– – Aller
– – – En avion
– – – En train
– – – En voiture
– – – En bus
– – – En bateau
– – Circuler
– – – En train
– – – En voiture
– – – En taxi
– – – À pied
– – – En roller
– – – En vélo
– – Voir
– – Faire
– – – Plages
– – – Beaux paysages
– – – Spectacles en direct
– – Apprendre
– – Acheter
– – Manger
– – – Budget
– – – Milieu de gamme
– – – Luxe
– – Boire
– – Se loger
– – – Budget
– – – Milieu de gamme
– – – Luxe
– – Sécurité
– – Chape
– – – Services religieux
– – – Consulats
– – Aux environs
– (Èze)
– – Aller
– – Circuler
– – Voir
– – Faire
– – Acheter
– – Aux environs
– (Menton)
– – Géographie
– – Aller
– – Circuler
– – Voir
– – – Sport
– – Faire
– – Acheter
– – – Marché aux puces
– – Manger
– – – Fast food
– – Boire
– – Se loger
– (Sospel)
– – Aller
– – Circuler
– – Voir
– – Faire
– – Acheter
– – Manger
– – Boire
– – Se loger
– – Aller prochaine
– (Villefranche-sur-Mer)
– – Aller
– – Circuler
– – Faire
– – Acheter
– – Manger
– – – Maison de vacances
– – Se loger
Arrondissement of Toulon
– Toulon
– – Climate
– – Economy
– – History
– – Transport
– – Get in
– – – By plane
– – – By train
– – – By bus
– – – By boat
– – – By car
– – Get around
– – See
– – – Vieille Ville
– – – Haute Ville
– – – Museums and places of interest
– – – Parks
– – – Out of town
– – – Points of interest
– – Do
– – – Events
– – – Beaches
– – – Sport
– – Learn
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – – Gastronomy
– – Drink
– – Stay safe
– – Go next
– Bormes-les-Mimosas
– – Understand
– – Get in
– – See
– – Do
– – Eat
– – Drink
– – Sleep
(Arrondissement de Toulon)
– (Toulon)
– – Climat
– – Économie
– – Histoire
– – Transports
– – Aller
– – – En avion
– – – En train
– – – En bus
– – – En bateau
– – – En voiture
– – Circuler
– – Voir
– – – Vieille Ville
– – – Haute Ville
– – – Musées et lieux d’intérêt
– – – Parcs
– – – En dehors de la ville
– – – Points d’intérêt
– – Faire
– – – Des événements
– – – Des plages
– – – Sport
– – Apprendre
– – Acheter
– – Manger
– – – (Gastronomie)
– – Boire
– – Sécurité
– – Aux environs
– (Bormes-les-Mimosas)
– – Information
– – Aller
– – Voir
– – Faire
– – Manger
– – Boire
– – Se loger
Monaco
– Get in
– – By plane
– – By helicopter
– – By train
– – By car
– By bus
– By boat
– On foot
– Get around
– – By foot
– – By bus
– – By motor scooter
– – By bicycle
– – By car
– – By taxi
– Talk
– See
– Do
– Buy
– Eat
– – Budget
– – Mid-range
– – Splurge
– Drink
– Sleep
– – Splurge
– Stay safe
– Go next
(Monaco)
– Aller
– – En avion
– – En hélicoptère
– – En train
– – En voiture
– – En bus
– – En bateau
– – À pied
– Circuler
– – À pied
– – En bus
– – En scooter
– – En vélo
– – En voiture
– – En taxi
– Parler
– Voir
– Faire
– Acheter
– Manger
– – Budget
– – Milieu de gamme
– – Luxe
– Boire
– Se loger
– – Milieu de gamme
– – Luxe
– Sécurité
– Aller prochaine
References
(Références)
About the author
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – By the same author
– – Contact
(A propos de l’auteur)
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – Du même auteur
– – Contact
Publishing House
– MultiMedia Publishing
Maison d’édition
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing House Edition: https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/french-riviera-tourist-guide-guide-touristique-cote-dazur-illustrated-edition-edition-illustree/

French Riviera Tourist Guide (Guide touristique Côte d’Azur)

Poetry Kaleidoscope

Poetry KaleidoscopeIntroduction in poetry: nature of poetry, tools, history, terms (periods, styles and movements, technical means, tropes, measures of verse, verse forms, national poetry…

Poetry is traditionally a written art form (although there is also an ancient and modern poetry which relies mainly upon oral or pictorial representations) in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content.

The increased emphasis on the aesthetics of language and the deliberate use of features such as repetition, meter and rhyme, are what are commonly used to distinguish poetry from prose, but debates over such distinctions still persist, while the issue is confounded by such forms as prose poetry and poetic prose.

Some modernists (such as the Surrealists) approach this problem of definition by defining poetry not as a literary genre within a set of genres, but as the very manifestation of human imagination, the substance which all creative acts derive from.

CONTENTS:

1 Poetry
– Nature of poetry
– Tools
– – Sound
– – Form
– – Rhetoric
– History
– 1.1 Nature of Poetry
– – 1.1.1 Prose Poetry
– – 1.1.2 Poem and Song
– – 1.1.2.1 Poesybeat
– 1.2 End-stopping
– 1.3 Groups and Movements
– – 1.3.1 Confessionalism
– – 1.3.2 Black Mountain Poets
– – Background
– – Projective Verse
– – The Main Black Mountain Poets
– – Legacy of the Black Mountain Poets
– – 1.3.3 Deep Image
– 1.4 Poetic closure
– 1.5 Poetic diction
– – Greece and Rome
– – Germanic languages
– – Asia
– – Poetic diction in English
– 1.6 Action Poetry
– 1.7 Ethnopoetics
– 1.8 Poets
– – Life of a poet
– – Poets and society
– – 1.8.1 Poetaster
– – 1.8.2 Poetess
– – 1.8.3 National Poets
– – List of national poets
– – Sobriquets
– – 1.8.4 War Poets
– – World War I
– – Spanish Civil War
– – World War II
– – Later wars
– – 1.8.5 Poète maudit
– 1.9 Poetry Analysis
– – Overview
– – – “Another”, by Robert Herrick
– – – “The Destruction of Sennacherib”, by Lord Byron
– – – “The Silken Tent”, by Robert Frost
– – Tools for poetry analysis
– – – Poetic forms
– – – – Closed forms
– – – – Open forms
– – – Imagery and symbolism
– – – Meter and rhyme
– – – Sound, tone, diction, and connotation
– – – Visual and concrete poetry
– – Approaches to poetry analysis
– – – Schools of poetry
– – – Schools of criticism
– – – Reading poetry aloud
– 1.10 Poetry Prizes and Awards
– – Lists of poetry prizes and awards
– – – Major international awards
– – – Major British awards
– – – Major Canadian awards
– – – Major French awards
– – – Major German awards
– – – Major Italian awards
– – – Major Korean awards
– – – Major Russian awards
– – – Major Spanish-language awards
– – – Major U.S. awards
– – 1.10.1 Poet Laureat
– – Origin of the term
– – History
– – List of Poets Laureate
– – – British Poets Laureate
– – – – Mediæval
– – – – Tudor
– – – – Stuart
– – – – Appointed by letters patent
– – – Scotland and Wales
– – Poets Laureate in other countries
– 1.11 Poetry Reading
– 1.12 World Poetry Day
2 National Poetry
– 2.1 American Poetry
– – Poetry in the colonies
– – Postcolonial poetry
– – An American idiom
– – Modernism and after
– – World War II and after
– – American poetry now
– – 2.1.1 Cowboy Poetry
– – Prominent cowboy poets
– 2.2 Arabic Poetry
– – Pre-Islamic poetry
– – Poetry under Islam
– – Court poets
– – Modern poetry
– – Poetic forms
– – – Mu’rabbah: literary Arabic
– – – Malhunah: informal poetry
– – 2.2.1 Ghazal
– – Details of the form
– – The theme
– – – Illicit unattainable love
– – – In the context of Sufism
– – Ghazal singers
– – 2.2.2 Muwashshah
– 2.3 Australian Poetry
– 2.4 Bengali Poetry
– 2.5 British Poetry
– – 2.5.1 Anglo-Welsh Poetry
– – 2.5.2 English Poetry
– – The earliest English poetry
– – The Anglo-Norman period and the Later Middle Ages
– – The Renaissance in England
– – – Early Renaissance poetry
– – – The Elizabethans
– – – – Elizabethan song
– – – – Courtly poetry
– – – – Elizabethan verse drama
– – – – Classicism
– – – Jacobean and Caroline poetry
– – – – The Metaphysical poets
– – – – The Cavalier poets
– – – – The school of Spenser
– – The Restoration and 18th century
– – – Satire
– – – 18th century classicism
– – – Women poets in the 18th century
– – – The late 18th century
– – The Romantic movement
– – Victorian poetry
– – – High Victorian poetry
– – – Pre-Raphaelites, arts and crafts, Aestheticism, and the “Yellow” 1890s
– – The 20th century
– – – The first three decades
– – – – The Georgian poets
– – – – World War I
– – – – Modernism
– – – The Thirties
– – – – The New Country poets
– – – – Surrealism and others
– – – The Forties
– – – – The war poets
– – – – The New Romantics
– – – – Other 1940s poets
– – – The Fifties
– – – – The Movement
– – – – The Group
– – – – The Extremist Art poets
– – – – The Modernist tradition
– – – The 1960s and 1970s
– – – – The British Poetry Revival
– – – – The Mersey Beat
– – English poetry now
– – 2.5.2.1 Heroic Couplets
– – 2.5.2.1.1 Heroic Verse
– – 2.5.2.2 Old English Poetry
– – – The poets
– – – Heroic poems
– – – Wisdom poetry
– – – Classical and Latin poetry
– – – Christian poetry
– – – – Saints’ Lives
– – – – Biblical paraphrases
– – – – Christian poems
– – – Other poems
– – – Specific features of Anglo-Saxon poetry
– – – – Simile, and metaphor
– – – – Elaboration
– – 2.5.3 Irish Poetry
– – Early Irish poetry
– – Medieval/Early modern
– – – Bardic poetry
– – – Metrical Dindshenchus
– – – The poems of Fionn
– – – The Kildare poems
– – – Spenser and Ireland
– – Gaelic poetry in the 17th century
– – The 18th century
– – – Gaelic songs: the end of an order
– – – Cúirt An Mheán Oíche
– – – Swift and Goldsmith
– – The 19th century
– – – Irishing English
– – – Folk songs and poems
– – – The Celtic revival
– – The 20th century
– – – Yeats and modernism
– – – The 1916 poets
– – – After Yeats: Clarke, Higgins, Colum
– – – Irish Modernism
– – – Poetry in De Valera’s Ireland
– – – Poetry in Irish
– – – The Northern School
– – – Experiment
– – – Outsiders
– – – Women poets
– – Irish poetry now
– – 2.5.3.1 Aisling
– – 2.5.4 Welsh Poetry
– – History
– – Forms
– – 2.5.4.1 Awdl
– – 2.5.4.2 Cynghanedd
– – Forms of cynghanedd
– – – Cynghanedd groes (“cross-harmony”)
– – – Cynghanedd draws (also “cross-harmony”)
– – – Cynghanedd sain (“sound-harmony”)
– – – Cynghanedd lusg (“drag-harmony”)
– – 2.5.4.3 Englyn
– – The Eight Types
– – – Englyn penfyr
– – – Englyn milwr
– – – Englyn unodl union
– – – Englyn unodl crwc
– – – Englyn cyrch
– – – Englyn proest dalgron
– – – Englyn lleddfbroest
– – – Englyn proest gadwynog
– – – Other forms
– – Examples
– – 2.5.5 Hudibrastic
– – 2.5.6 Mock-heroic
– 2.6 Burmese Poetry
– – 2.6.1 Than-Bauk
– – 2.6.2 Ya-Du
– 2.7 Cambodian – Pathya vat
– 2.8 Canadian Poetry
– – English-Canadian Poetry
– – – Beginnings
– – – Confederation
– – – Early 20th Century
– – – Post War
– – – Literary Prizes
– – – Uniquely Canadian Forms
– – – – Shallot Confiture
– – French-Canadian Poetry
– – – Early verse
– – – End of 19th century
– – – The Montreal School
– – – The terroir
– 2.9 Chinese Poetry
– – Early poetry
– – Classical poetry
– – Later classical poetry
– – Modern poetry
– – 2.9.1 Ci
– – Famous Ci Poets
– – 2.9.2 Shi
– – Origins
– – Gushi
– – Jintishi
– – Examples of Tang poetry
– – 2.9.3 Yue fu
– 2.10 Filipino – Tanaga
– – History of the Tanaga
– – The Modern Tanaga
– – Tanaga in other Languages
– 2.11 French Poetry
– – Important French poets
– – 2.11.1 Ballade
– – 2.11.2 Chansons de Geste
– – Subjects
– – Origins
– – Performance
– – The poems themselves
– – Legacy
– – 2.11.3 Reverdie
– – 2.11.4 Rondeau
– – 2.11.5 Rondelet
– – Other uses
– – 2.11.6 Vers de Société
– – 2.11.7 Virelai
– – Example
– – 2.11.7.1 Virelai ancien
– – 2.11.7.2 Virelai nouveau
– – An Example
– – 2.11.8 Virelay
– 2.12 Hebrew and Jewish Epic Poetry
– 2.13 Indian Epic Poetry
– 2.14 Italian Poetry
– – 2.14.1 Ballata
– – 2.14.2 Dodecasyllable
– – 2.14.3 Fescennine Verses
– – 2.14.4 Hendecasyllable
– – 2.14.5 Sicilian octave
– 2.15 Japanese Poetry
– – Ancient
– – – Poems in Kojiki and Nihonshoki
– – – Early Manyoshu poets (Vol. I-III)
– – – Chinese influence
– – – Nara period poets
– – – Waka in the early Heian period
– – – The culmination of Kanshi
– – – Kokinshu
– – – Influence of Kokin-wakashu
– – – Imperial anthologies of Waka
– – From the late ancient to Middle
– – – Waka in the life of Kuge
– – – Roei style
– – – Age of Nyobo or court ladies
– – – Poetry in the period of cloistered rule
– – – Shinkokin Wakashu
– – – Fujiwara no Teika
– – – Pre-modern
– – – Modern
– – – Contemporary
– – Important Poets (premodern)
– – Important poets (Modern)
– – Important collections and works
– – 2.15.1 Dodoitsu
– – 2.15.2 Haiku
– – – Hokku or haiku?
– – – Two examples
– – Origin and evolution
– – – From renga to haikai
– – – The time of Bashō
– – – The time of Buson
– – – The appearance of Shiki
– – Modern haiku
– – – Hekigotō and Kyoshi
– – Haiku in the West
– – – Henderson and Blyth
– – – The budding of American haiku
– – Contemporary English-language haiku
– – Internet and television
– – 2.15.2.1 Kimo
– – 2.15.2.2 SciFaiku
– – 2.15.3 Renga
– – History
– – How to Make a Renga
– – Terms of Renga
– – 2.15.4 Senryu
– – 2.15.5 Shichigon-zekku
– – Composition
– – 2.15.6 Waka
– – Forms of Waka
– – – Chōka
– – – Tanka
– – – Other forms
– – Poetic culture
– – History of Waka development
– – – Ancient
– – – Heian revival
– – – Medieval
– – – Tokugawa shogunate period
– – – Modern
– – Tanka written in English
– 2.16 Kannada Poetry
– – Pre-history
– – Haiku before Haiku!
– – Bhakti
– – Navodaya (New birth)
– – Navya (New)
– – Other genres
– – Awards
– – Reaching people
– 2.17 Korean Poetry
– – 2.17.1 Sijo
– 2.18 Lao – Glawn
– 2.19 Malay – Pantun
– 2.20 Old Norse Poetry
– – Metrical Forms
– – Eddaic poetry
– – Skaldic poetry
– – – Skaldic poems
– – 2.20.1 Edda
– – Etymology
– – The Poetic Edda
– – The Younger Edda
– 2.21 Provençal – Alba
– 2.22 Rune Poems
– – Fe
– – Ur
– – Þurs
– – As
– – Reidh
– – Kaun
– – Hagall
– – Naud
– – Is
– – Ar
– – Sol
– – Tyr
– – Bjarken
– – Madr
– – Logr
– – Yr
– – Anglo-Saxon only runes
– – – Gyfu, Wynn
– – – Ger, Eoh, Peordh, Eolh
– – – Eh
– – – Ing, Ethel, Daeg
– – – Ac, Ash, Yr, Ior, Ear
– – Abecedarium Nordmannicum
– 2.23 Russian Poetry
– – 2.23.1 Bylina
– – 2.23.2 Chastushka
– – Examples
– 2.24 Serbian Epic Poetry
– – Structure
– – Corpus
– – Modern Serbian Epic Poetry
– – Excerpts
– – Quotes
– 2.25 Spanish Poetry
– 2.26 Spanish American Poetry
– – Flor y Canto
– – From the Preconquest to the beginning of Colonialization
– – 2.26.1 Décima
– 2.27 Tamil – Kural
– 2.28 Ukrainian – Duma
– 2.29 Urdu Poetry
– – Genres
– – Pen names (Takhallus)
– – 2.29.1 Beher
– – 2.29.2 Maqta
– – 2.29.3 Qaafiyaa
– – 2.29.4 Radif
– 2.30 Vietnamese – Luc Bat
– – Example
– – 2.30.1 Song Thất Lục Bát
3 Periods
– 3.1 Ancient Poetry
– – 3.1.1 Augustan Poetry
– – Overview
– – Alexander Pope, the Scribblerans, and poetry as social act
– – Translation and adaptation as statement
– – Sentiment and the poetry of the individual
– – 3.1.2 Choliambic Verse
– – 3.1.3 Glyconic
– – 3.1.4 Saturnian
– – The Saturnian as quantitative
– – – Examples
– – The Saturnian as accentual
– – – Examples
– – The Saturnian in non-Latin Italic
– – 3.1.5 Tristubh
– 3.2 Medieval Poetry
– – Medieval Latin literature
– – Medieval vernacular literature
4 Styles
– 4.1 Acrostic
– 4.2 Concrete Poetry
– 4.3 Christian Poetry
– – Overview of Christian poetry
– – Examples of Christian Poems
– – 4.3.1 Biblical Poetry
– – Characteristics of Ancient Hebrew Poetry
– – – Rhyme
– – – Unusual forms
– – – Parallelism
– – – Quantitative rhythm
– – – Accentual rhythm
– – – The Dirges
– – – Anadiplosis
– – – Acrostics
– – Division of the poetical portions of the Hebrew Bible
– – – Poems that deal with events
– – – Didactic poems
– – – Lyrics
– – – Poems that urge action
– – Extent of Poetry in the Old Testament
– 4.4 Death Poem
– 4.5 Digital Poetry
– 4.6 Dramatic poetry
– – Dramatic verse
– – The closet drama
– – Dramatic poetry in general
– – 4.6.1 Aubade
– 4.7 Eclogue
– – Ancient Eclogues
– – Modern Eclogues
– 4.8 Epigram
– – Ancient Greek
– – Ancient Roman
– – Poetic epigrams
– – Non-poetic epigrams
– 4.9 Epitah
– – Famous Epitaphs
– – Other Epitaphs
– 4.10 Epithalamium
– – History
– – Development as a Literary Form
– 4.11 Erasure Poetry
– 4.12 Found Poetry
– 4.13 Gnomic Poetry
– 4.14 Ideogramme
– – 4.14.1 Ideogrammic method
– 4.15 Idyll
– 4.16 Jazz Poetry
– – The Harlem Renaissance
– – Bebop and the Beat Generation
– – Modern Jazz Poetry
– 4.17 Kyrielle
– – Name and form
– – An example
– 4.18 Lament
– 4.19 Light Poetry
– – 4.19.1 Doggerel
– – 4.19.2 McWhirtle
– 4.20 Limerick Poetry
– – Structure
– – History
– – – Origin of the name
– – – Early examples
– – – Edward Lear
– – Well-known authors
– – Recurring themes
– – – Ribald verses
– – – Nantucket
– – – Uttoxeter and Exeter
– – Spelling
– – – Anti-limericks
– – – Non-rhyme
– – – Structure
– – Limericks in other languages than English
– 4.21 Lyric poetry
– – History
– – Themes
– – Forms
– – Metrics
– – Rhyme and alliteration
– – 4.21.1 Anacreontics
– – 4.21.2 Cantiga de Amigo
– – 4.21.3 Ode
– – Greek origins
– – Ode in Continental Europe
– – English ode
– – Ode in music
– – 4.21.3.1 Antistrophe
– – 4.21.3.2 Epode
– – Epodes of Horace
– – 4.21.3.3 Palinode
– – Examples
– 4.22 Narrative Poetry
– – 4.22.1 Ballad
– – Origin and form
– – Characteristics
– – Broadsheet ballads
– – – Murder ballads
– – Border ballads
– – Literary ballads
– – Ballad opera
– – Jazz ballad
– – 4.22.1.1 Ballad Meter
– – 4.22.2 Epic
– – Oral epics or world folk epics
– – Epics in literate societies
– – 4.22.2.1 National Epic
– – Western
– – Oriental
– – 4.22.2.2 World Folk-epics
– – 4.22.3 Epyllion
– 4.23 Pantoum
– 4.24 Paradelle
– – Derivation
– – Form
– – The Paradelle Now
– 4.25 Partimen
– 4.26 Performance Poetry
– – Poetry in Oral Cultures
– – The Advent of Printing
– – The 20th Century
– – The 1970s and After
– – 4.26.1 Dub Poetry
– – 4.26.2 Slam Poetry
– – Slam and academia
– – History
– – Competition
– – Competition types
– 4.27 Roses are red
– 4.28 Scrypt
– – Technique
– – – The Use of Rhymes
– – – Complex Rhyme Structures
– – – Flow & Rhythm
– – – Visual Wordplay
– – – KiStyling
– – History
– 4.29 Sound Poetry
– 4.30 Schools of Poetry
– – 4.30.1 Martian Poetry
– – 4.30.2 Modernist Poetry
– – 4.30.3 Romantic Poetry
– – Usage
– – Pioneers of romantic poetry
– – The flowering of romantic poetry in England
– – 4.30.4 Symbolist Poetry
5 Technical means
– 5.1 Accent
– 5.2 Anacrusis
– 5.3 Assonance
– – Examples
– 5.4 Cæsura
– – Examples
– – – Latin
– – – Old English
– – – Middle English
– – – Modern English
– – Classification
– 5.5 Dissonance
– 5.6 Kennings
– – Modern kennings
– 5.7 Meter
– – Fundamentals
– – Technical Terms
– – Common Feet
– – – Greek and Latin
– – – English
– – – French
– – – Spanish
– – – Italian
– – Dissent
– – 5.7.1 Foot
– – The poetic feet
– – – Disyllables
– – – Trisyllables
– – – Tetrasyllables
– – 5.7.1.1 Amphibrach
– – 5.7.1.2 Anapaest
– – 5.7.1.3 Choriamb
– – 5.7.1.3.1 Choriambic Verse
– – 5.7.1.4 Iamb
– – 5.7.1.4.1 Common Metre
– – 5.7.1.4.2 Iambic Heptameter
– – 5.7.1.4.3 Iambic Pentameter
– – A Simple Example
– – Rhythmic Variation
– – History in English
– – 5.7.1.4.4 Iambic Trimeter
– – 5.7.1.5 Pyrrhic
– – 5.7.1.6 Spondee
– – 5.7.1.7 Tribrach
– – 5.7.1.8 Trochee
– – 5.7.2 Dactyl
– – 5.7.2.1 Dactylic Hexameter
– – 5.7.2.2 Double Dactyl
– – 5.7.3 Decasyllable
– – 5.7.4 Elegy
– – 5.7.4.1 Elegiac
– – 5.7.4.1.1 Elegiac couplet
– – 5.7.5 Hendecasyllabic
– – 5.7.6 Vedic meter
– – 5.7.7 Poulter’s Measure
– 5.8 Rhyme
– – Etymology
– – Examples
– – Types of rhyme
– – Rhyme in English
– – Rhyme in French
– – Rhyme in Hebrew
– – Rhyme in Latin
– – 5.8.1 Classification of Rhymes
– – Traditional Pure Rhyme
– – Pararhyme
– – Assonance Rhyme
– – – Pure Assonance Rhyme
– – Consonance Rhyme
– – Syllable Rhyme
– – Uneven Rhyme
– – Other types of rhyme
– – 5.8.2 Rhyme Scheme
– – 5.8.3 Chain Rhyme
– – 5.8.4 Eye Rhyme
– – 5.8.5 Feminine Rhyme
– – 5.8.6 Half Rhyme
– – 5.8.7 Holorime
– – Holorime in English
– – Holorime in French
– – Other examples
– – 5.8.8 Internal Rhyme
– – Examples
– – 5.8.9 Nursery Rhyme
– – Popular culture
– – 5.8.9.1 Mares Eat Oats
– – Lyrics
– – History
– – 5.8.10 Pararhyme
– – 5.8.11 Sprung Rhythm
– – Example
– – 5.8.12 Triolet
– – Examples
– – 5.8.13 Pruning Poem
– 5.9 Stichomythia
– 5.10 Structural elements
– – 5.10.1 Line
– – 5.10.1.1 Acatalectic
– – 5.10.1.2 Acephalous Line
– – 5.10.1.3 Alexandrine
– – 5.10.1.4 Asclepiad
– – 5.10.1.5 Catalectic
– – 5.10.1.6 Dimeter/Couplet
– – 5.10.1.7 Feminine Ending
– – 5.10.1.8 Heptameter
– – 5.10.1.9 Hexameter
– – 5.10.1.10 Monometer
– – 5.10.1.11 Octameter
– – 5.10.1.12 Pentameter
– – 5.10.1.13 Tetrameter
– – 5.10.1.14 Trimeter
– – 5.10.2 Couplet
– – 5.10.2.1 Closed Couplet
– – 5.10.3 Stroph
– – 5.10.4 Stanza
– – 5.10.4.1 Chant Royal
– – An Example
– – 5.10.4.2 Cinquain
– – 5.10.4.3 Envoi
– – Form
– – Early Use
– – Development
– – An Example
– – 5.10.4.4 Habbie Stanza
– – 5.10.4.5 Onegin Stanza
– – 5.10.4.6 Ottava Rima
– – Form
– – History
– – Some examples
– – 5.10.4.7 Quatrain
– – Basic Forms
– – Other forms
– – 5.10.4.8 Rhyme Royal
– – Form
– – History
– – Some Examples
– – Ballade Royal
– – 5.10.4.9 Sapphics
– – 5.10.4.10 Spenserian Stanza
– – 5.10.4.11 Terza rima
– – Form
– – History
– – Some Examples
– – 5.10.4.12 Verse Paragraph
6 Verse
– 6.1 Accentual Verse
– 6.2 Alliterative verse
– – Common Germanic origins and features
– – Old English poetic forms
– – – Accent
– – – Alliteration
– – – Survivals
– – Old Norse poetic forms
– – – Fornyrðislag
– – – Ljóðaháttr
– – – Dróttkvætt
– – – Hrynhenda
– – German forms
– – – In Old High German and Old Saxon
– – – Modern use
– – 6.2.1 Anglo-Saxon
– 6.3 Blank verse
– – History of English blank verse
– 6.4 Clerihew
– – Examples
– – – The World’s Shortest Clerihew
– 6.5 Free verse
– – Some types of Free Verse
– – History
– – Precursors
– 6.6 Grook
– 6.7 Libel
– – Classical roots
– – Renaissance English examples
– 6.8 Monostich
– 6.9 Nonet
– 6.10 Nonsense Verse
– 6.11 Octave
– 6.12 Roundelay
– 6.13 Sestina
– – Example
– – How to
– 6.14 Solage
– – Examples
– 6.15 Sonnet
– – The Italian Sonnet
– – The English Sonnet
– – – History
– – – Form
– – The Modern Sonnet
– – 6.15.1 Caudate sonnet
– – 6.15.2 Crown of sonnets
– – 6.15.3 Curtal sonnet
– – 6.15.4 Petrarchan sonnet
– – 6.15.5 Quatorzain
– – 6.15.6 Sestet
– – 6.15.7 Shakespearean sonnet
– – 6.15.8 Sonnet cycle
– – 6.15.9 Spenserian sonnet
– 6.16 Syllabic Verse
– 6.17 Tercet
– 6.18 Terzanelle
– 6.19 Villanelle
– – Derivation
– – Form
– – The villanelle in English
– – Example
Refrence
About the author
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – By the same author
– – Contact
Publishing House
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing House https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/poetry-kaleidoscope/
– Digital: EPUB (ISBN 978-606-033-098-1), Kindle (ISBN 978-606-033-100-1), PDF (ISBN 978-606-033-099-8)
Publication Date: December 2, 2014