(Marble bust of Roman origin (1st century BC) representing Socrates, copy of a lost bronze (by Lysippus).) The term ancient philosophy generally designates the philosophy that was born in the 7th century BC, and which developed with Socrates and Plato, … Read More
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Nominalism is a philosophical doctrine which considers that concepts are human constructions and that the names which relate to them are only conventions of language. Beings are not intrinsically carriers of the concepts by which we apprehend them. For example, … Read More
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Logic Logic is not concerned with concrete content, but with the laws of consistency. She asks, based on which rules out certain conditions specific ( “premises”) result or can not be drawn conclusions. To that extent, it addresses the basis of all argument- based science. In earlier … Read More
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The expression historically informed performance (HIP) designates a musical interpretation movement developed in the 20th century and more particularly during the second half of the 20th century. Seeking to get closer to the musical tastes of the time and the … Read More
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Physicalism, a term coined by Rudolf Carnap, is the thesis, or doctrine, that all knowledge is reducible, at least theoretically, to statements of physics. The human and social sciences, just like the natural sciences, which each have their specific vocabulary … Read More
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The problem of induction (also: Humean problem or Hume problem) is a basic problem of epistemology. It relates to the question of whether and when a conclusion by inducing individual cases to a generally applicable law is permissible. It was first mentioned by David Hume around 1740 . Although the problem of induction was … Read More
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(My eyes at the moment of the apparitions by August Natterer, a German artist who created many drawings of his hallucinations.) A hallucination is defined, in psychiatry, as a sensory perception without the presence of a detectable stimulus: for example … Read More
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As a social value, equal opportunities is a complex concept. The term equality is, in fact, polysemous, and therefore subject to interpretation. Objectivity in the definition given in this article will therefore be relative. Note also the ambiguity of the … Read More
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Animal ethics is the branch of ethics that studies the moral responsibility of the human species towards other animals. This discipline examines the moral judgments that can be made on the current treatment of animals and asks questions about our … Read More
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Moral relativism (also: ethical relativism) is a metaethics positions of practical philosophy about moral principles, judgments and beliefs on social, cultural, historical or personal circumstances. According to this position, values and judgments, especially moral judgments, are not objective and in principle not universally valid. Rather, values are dependent of cultural, historical, especially material conditions and individual … Read More
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