Identity theory In the context of the philosophy of mind, psychophysical identity designates the assumed logical equivalence between expressions or descriptions pertaining to the vocabulary of psychology and concepts pertaining to the vocabulary of the physical and natural sciences. In … Read More
The most powerful scientific statements are usually those offering the broadest scope of application; Newton’s third law (on the equal reciprocal attraction of heavy bodies) is the perfect example. But it is obviously not possible for scientists to test each … Read More
Related philosophical concepts Sometimes are also used the terms: cogitatio: the act of thinking; cogitatum: the object of a thought; (res)cogitans: the thinker, the thinking thing (often denoting the soul). The subject Descartes’ philosophy is still very much on the … Read More
(Political regimes around the world (2022) Republics Full presidential republics Republics with an executive presidency elected by or nominated by the legislature Semi-presidential republics Parliamentary republics Republics where the constitution grants the right to govern only to a single party … Read More
Anti-speciesist criticism corresponds more broadly to that of “post-humanism”, which has known a certain development with the social sciences which draw their source from Rousseauist thought and of which Claude Lévi-Strauss is, for example, the most illustrious representative : “It … Read More
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Although many philosophers regard consequentialism as the quintessential moral theory, it is not the only moral theory. Criticisms leveled at it by proponents of other moral theories may have helped shape the forms consequentialism has taken in recent work. Deontology … Read More
Leibniz’s proposed variant, often referred to as “by the contingency” cosmological argument, is enjoying some resurgence in popularity these days. Championed by contemporary philosophers like Alexander Pruss and Joshua Rasmussen, it is based on the distinction between the contingent and … Read More
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Marx, observer of the evolution of human societies The concept of social class was not invented by Karl Marx. It was used by the founders of political economy (Adam Smith…) and in the tradition of French political history (Alexis de … Read More
(For simplicity, Plato’s idealism is often contrasted with Aristotle’s alleged empiricism, as evidenced by the gesture of each of the two philosophers in this detail of a fresco by Raphael.) In 1702, the German philosopher Leibniz coined the term idealism … Read More