Retributive justice or retributionism is a theory of justice – and more specifically a theory of punishment – that holds that proportional retribution is a morally acceptable response to the offense or crime, regardless of whether or not this measure … Read More
In the defense of the interests of animals, we can distinguish two great philosophies: that defending greater animal welfare, and that claiming rights for animals. These two points of view correspond to two more general ethical conceptions: deontologists base morality … Read More
Naturalism and natural sciences Relationship to science The naturalist perspective leads to accord philosophy to the data of the natural sciences. This agreement implies three types of requirements for the philosophy: Scientific data must be integrated into philosophical reflection; Philosophical … Read More
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Logical empiricism (sometimes called logical empiricism, neo-positivism, or rational empiricism) is a philosophical school primarily exemplified by the Vienna Circle, founded by a group of Viennese scientists and philosophers in the 1920s. The Vienna Circle was above all a place … Read More
The Pythagorean school founded by Pythagoras (580-495 BC) in Magna Graecia constitutes a brotherhood that is both scientific and religious: Pythagoreanism is indeed based on an initiation and offers its followers a way of ethics and food life, as well … Read More
Atomism is a philosophical current proposing a conception of a discontinuous universe, composed of matter and emptiness. According to atomists, the atoms that make up the universe are all of the same substance. They are indivisible and differ from each … Read More
There was a time, when it was, that if it weren’t, it wouldn’t be told. We haven’t been since the stories, but we’ve been there for about two or three days, since the flea was shod with ninety-nine iron goats … Read More
The philosophy of logic is a part of the philosophy of science which is interested in the set of theoretical problems which traditionally come under logic, essentially comprising first of all the question of its essence, its history from its … Read More
Abraham Rudnick Introduction Societies are measured in part in relation to how they rise to the occasion of collective crises and learn from them. For example, both Taiwan and Canada (specifically Toronto) were similarly directly impacted by the Severe Acute Respiratory … Read More
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